Philip prepared Macedon and the league to invade Persia. Isocrates seems to have had little trouble accommodating himself to such a culture, but Demosthenes saw no compromise. To consolidate his empire and afford protection for his holdings in the , Charles then married Philip to of England, the Catholic queen of a basically Protestant country. During the 1545—1563 there was usually strong doctrinal accord between the papacy and Spanish bishops. After Mary's death in 1558, Philip offered himself as a husband to Elizabeth. French Relations As Philip sought to put down the rebellion in the Netherlands, he fomented dissension in France.
This is certainly something that should be kept in mind, as one considers the major accomplishments of his life. Elizabeth and her advisors watched the situation with great interest. Philip was approximately 46 when he died. Mary died in 1558 and was succeeded by her half-sister, 1533—1603; see entry , who was committed to keeping England a Protestant nation. His Armada was the most powerful navy in the world; indeed, many believed it to be incapable of defeat.
Alba was relieved of command in 1573. Philip tried unsuccessfully to install his own candidate on the French throne, and Spanish troops became embroiled in the French wars. The king repeatedly privileged statecraft over politics, for example, in his choice to impose his will on the Low Countries by proxy rather than journeying north to conciliate his powerful subjects. His heir Don Carlos died insane under house arrest in 1568, soon followed to the grave by Queen Isabelle, who left Philip two daughters, Isabel Clara Eugenia 1566 —1633 and Catalina Micaela 1567 —1598. But the inheritance inevitably included the host of problems which his father had left unsolved or which were incapable of being solved. His able use of shifting alliances, combined with his military supremacy, granted him territory and influence that increased Macedonia's wealth, security and unity. As it turned out, Philip did not need to attack Athens; the city surrendered.
Ill since September 1222, Philip died at Mantes on July 14, 1223, while on his way to Paris. As king, he preferred to reserve all final decisions to himself; he mistrusted powerful and independent personalities and rarely reposed much confidence in aides. War with Pope 1555 —1559 broke out in 1556, triggering a wider war against of France ruled 1547 —1559 in 1557. Although he was not crowned, Philip took the style of king of. This was important to Mary as she wanted to ensure that a Catholic monarchy would continue after her death. Macedonians were polygamous, so marrying the female relatives of powerful opponents and allies was a natural step for Philip his seven wives included Molossian princess Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great.
He immersed himself in an ocean of paperwork, studying dispatches and documents and adding marginal comments on them while scores of other documents and dispatches piled up on tables. At Lepanto, in 1571, the Catholic forces devastated the enemy fleet. In that year the peace treaty with France was signed. The Spanish Empire was huge and many day-to-day issues had to be dealt with. Philip had succeeded his father as king of Spain in 1556. He did his best to save the fleet, and the Armada sailed north. These anxieties fostered the brief and unstable Holy League, a naval alliance between Philip and the Venetians brokered in 1571 by 1566 —1572.
His relations with the papacy were generally bad, because most of the popes feared Spanish power in Italy. However, his reign saw the of Spain, her bankruptcy and a disastrous decade from which included the disaster of the Spanish Armada. But at the same time that the Dutch were in revolt, there were repeated clashes between the French royal armies and French Calvinists. The skill of the English navy and adverse weather conditions led to a total fiasco. While Spanish forces were defeating the Ottomans, Philip was contending with the Revolt of the Netherlands, which broke out in 1566. He became king before his father died. Royal debt —Castile's share tripled to 85 million ducats between 1560 and 1598 —and mounting taxation contributed to Castilian economic deterioration, and eventually to the eclipse of Spanish power in Europe.
The most serious of the conspiracies that Philip supported, the Babington plot, resulted in 's execution for treason in 1587. The rest of Charles's dominions was the Holy Austria and parts of Germany , which he left to his brother Ferdinand 1503—1564; ruled 1558—64 , who succeeded him as emperor. When he acceded to the throne in 1556, the two countries were still at war; peace was concluded at Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559, largely because both states were financially exhausted. This plot, however, was discovered and Howard was executed for treason in 1572. He desired to return England to being a Catholic country, although he was ultimately unsuccessful in this venture. Assassination and Legacy While preparations were underway for the move into Persia, Philip participated in a procession in Aegae in July 336.
On 1st February, 1554, Mary addressed a meeting in the where she proclaimed Wyatt a traitor. The old and brutal duke was again successful, and the vast dominions of Portugal fell into Philip's hands. Since the Macedonians practiced polygamy, he made several marriage alliances, one of which to Olympias, a niece of the king of Epirus, who bore him a son, the future. Greatest of the French medieval kings, he increased the royal domain by marriage, by exploiting his feudal rights, and by war. Over the next two decades, Philip would achieve a series of victories in the region, only suffering a major defeat in 353.