There are certain risks involved in decision making and the conditions vary from certainty to complete uncertainty. Consider seeking outside advice if you have gone through all the previous steps on your own; asking for a second opinion can provide a new perspective on the problem and your potential solutions. There are always differences of opinions, judgments, etc. Various proposals and alternatives are placed before the policy-makers and they are to select only the necessary ones. Herbert Simon, in fact, is the pioneer in the field of decision-making concept because he felt that if decision were not taken properly and timely that may spoil the objective of the business organisation and keeping this in mind it is essential that an organisation will resort to utmost caution as to the adoption of decision and at the same time will focus on the implementation of the decision. But generally speaking this type of irrationality does not become the common feature. Failure to achieve company goals means wasted resources such as money, company bills, manpower and time.
Especially the socialisation has an important part in the entire process. The operations research is one of the techniques used by modern management for deciding important matters. Types of Decision s: Different decisions differ in nature and significance. Richard Snyder has maintained that in every society there is political action and behind every action there is the role of human activity. Programmed decisions may taken by first line or middle line managers. He wants to avoid or evade problem or uncertainty and for that reason he decides to follow a policy of incrementalism.
It seems clear that the better option is to sell the damaged truck. For Nike, buying television advertising time is a programmed decision. Decision problems necessitate a choice from different alternatives. Such decisions will be sound and proper. These decisions influence organizational structure, objectives, working conditions, finances etc. It uses a set of axioms about how rational individuals behave which has been widely challenged on both empirical and theoretical ground. Journal of Business Ethics, 1992, 11, 445- 459.
According to this criterion, a public enterprise should evaluate all social costs and benefits when making a decision whether to build an airport, a power plant, a steel plant, etc. The data and information so obtained can be used to evaluate the outcome or results expected from each possible course of action. A manager is not required to go through the problem solving procedures again and again for taking programmed decisions. But this does not mean that his approach is wrong or has no meaning in reality. In democracy there is no question of imposing a decision on the public.
It is generally believed that all these models unnecessarily create confusion in the minds of readers. Peer reporting of unethical behavior: A social context perspective. It is also essential that facts should be properly diagnosed, classified and interpreted. But we have analysed other models which highlight the other aspects of the decision-making approach. A number of possibilities are selected before making a final selection. Resources at the disposal of an organisation are scarce.
The effect of ethical climate on managers' decisions. Evaluating Alternative Courses of Action: The next step in business decision making is to evaluate the alternative courses of action. The interference of the scientific methods thus seems to be ineluctable. Non-programmed decisions deal with unusual or exceptional problems. In other words, conflict arises between rationality and reality or the general welfare of the bodypolitic. Positive as Well as Negative: Decision-making can be both positive and negative i. It is the duty of the decision-makers to say that the decision has been formulated in the background of certain problems and issues and it is designed to perform such and such tasks.
Through their individual actions and choice managers can do little to affect the aggregate economy, with which macroeconomics is concerned. Types of Managerial Decision Making:- Decision Making is an art of selection of one feasible alternative decision from many. For Nike, buyingtelevision advertising time is a programmed decision. To toss in the extraneous data may help describe the situation, but it is of no benefit in attempting to guide decisions. If this were the objective of the decision-maker he cannot make policy according to his personal preferences or sweet will. But it is unfortunate that none took care of analysing the concept in details.
The decision-maker, of course, makes prediction but that is based on past experience. Moreover, there are different structures of a political system and these structures have their allotted functions. In conventional analysis there is a dichotomy between policy-making and policy implementation. Rather all these have made management and politics more scientific. Keynes, observations influenced the British government to adopt anti-unemployment measures. The use of risk analysis, decision trees and preference theory can help in making proper decisions under those situations.