Using multiple methods can help facilitate deeper understanding. Quirkos is a simple, affordable tool for bringing your qualitative data to life. Researchers can also design a mixed-method qualitative and quantitative study where very different methods are triangulated. Every method of study or process has its own advantages, disadvantages, benefits and drawbacks. Prior to and during the research process, there are choices the researcher can make to strengthen his or her results. Instead, reality is a social construction, given life through intersubjective agreement — that is, the contours of reality are defined by general agreement between humans in the society. The deduction can therefore be made that an integrated multi-method research approach increases the understanding of human nature and social reality in their full complexity.
All the above-mentioned provide evidence that the paradigm shift is operating on two different levels. They often use a modus operandi approach, which consists largely of triangulating independent indices. Observation plays a very specific role in ethnography, which is when the researcher immerses him or herself into the culture or group being investigated. The goal of qualitative research is understanding. It is always important to also include the date, time, and location of the observation—and perhaps even a map of the research setting. Texts can include a near limitless range of social actions—transcripts from an interview, a movie, Congressional proceedings, a commercial, etc. Using this dual approach does not result in a single, clear-cut, consistent picture, but rather presents a challenge to improve comprehension of the various reasons for the existence of inconsistencies between the two sets of data Patton 1990.
In the case of a wrestling ethnography, many contextual factors aid our understanding of the group. Field notes are a record of the activities of the participants of a study. Establishing Validity in Qualitative Research The following module discusses reliability and validity in qualitative research, with an emphasis on establishing credibility and transferability. One can imagine the richness of the stories naturally arising in that setting. The Qualitative Worldview Individuals engaged in qualitative research approach their projects from a different perspective than quantitative and rhetorical researchers. Another example is when other professors visit your classroom in order to observe and evaluate your professor or teaching assistant. To summarise, triangulation in this study was more than scaling, reliability and convergent validation; it captured a more complete, holistic and contextual portrayal of units under study.
A review of the triangulation results of this study is illustrated in seven tables. Everything depends on the perception and use of researchers how and when they use Blumberg et al 2005. It brings validity, increased methodological reliability and the rate of certainty in the research findings. Denzin concludes the book with a discussion of the problems with multiple-triangulated investigations pp. This is emphasised by two other factors regarding the nature of this debate. Once again, the fact that qualitative research proceeds inductively starting with a specific group or setting , rather than deductively, reinforces the necessity of purposive sampling practices.
Thus the qualitative research approach is not only strengthened, but also empowered by implementing triangulation. When conducting observations for research purposes, researchers need to be able to sort through, process, and accurately capture the variety of stimuli occurring simultaneously in the environment. This assumes that a weakness in one method will be compensated for by another method, and that it is always possible to make sense between different accounts. Qualitative Inquiry, 16 10 , 837-851. They may take anywhere between a half an hour to two hours or more, although the one-hour interview is perhaps the norm.
Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Qualitative data can capture many of the complexities of human interaction that are unable to be uncovered through a quantitative survey. Ultimately, decisions regarding methodology rest on the types of questions that the researcher wants to answer. A comparison is made with quantitative research, arguing that this is not as objective and non-interpretative as it often made out to be. You designed a mixed research in which you created serious of methods on how you plan on assessing your research hypothesis by collecting relevant data.
In this way, a qualitative researcher must recognize his or her subjectivity regarding the collection and analysis of data. This is similar to the characteristics of a scholarly observer. In these seven tables the horizontal rows represent the broad stages of concern dimensions. Even in an ideal study, a result is considered statistically accurate when there is less than a 5% probability of that result having occurred by chance. Triangulation takes multiple forms from researcher triangulation to data triangulation. Disadvantages An immediate disadvantage of triangulation in sociological research is the cost. In qualitative research, the researcher is the data collection device.
On one hand, there is the recognition that the participants in the research have their own unique way of interpreting and understanding events and their own social actions. Like reliability and validity as used in quantitative research are providing springboard to examine what these two terms mean in the qualitative research paradigm, triangulation as used in quantitative research to test the reliability and validity can also illuminate some ways to test or maximize the validity and reliability of a qualitative study. Therefore, rather than attempting to predict and control human behavior, qualitative social scientists should seek to understand social action. Thus, the two research approaches should be regarded as equivalent value - one is not inferior to the other. Symbolic Interactionism focuses on the interplay among mind, self, and society. Ghauri, et al 1995:94 defines triangulation as the combination of methodologies in the study of a same phenomenon.
For example, consider the amount of time it takes to set up, conduct, and transcribe ten average length interviews compared to an on-line survey that automatically compiles the data and uploads it into a statistical program. Oral-questioning skills of novice teachers:. In case you need to investigate differential perspectives of the multiple sources regarding the phenomena ,under consideration-Multi source triangulation will be useful. Since every method has weaknesses or bias, it is common for qualitative research projects to collect data in a variety of different ways to build up a better picture. In the South African context this is a unique access programme.