It is believed that a religion is more than a set of beliefs: it has sacred rituals or practices and these rituals are collective — performed by social groups. These are but two of the theoretical approaches that come to mind when trying to formulate opinions as the usefulness of functionalist approaches. The clan have a totem that symbolises its origins and identity and the totemic rituals in which people respect the symbol, serve to reinforce the groups solidarity and sense of belonging. Religion, he argued, was an expression of social cohesion. These symbols would then represent the basic set of shared beliefs, traditions, and norms that make social life possible. Religion, in one form or another, has been found in all human societies since human societies first appeared.
It does so by reinforcing social norms and values that bring the community together. Religion provided a meaning for life, it provided authority figures, and most importantly for Durkheim, it reinforced the morals and social norms held collectively by all within a society. An example of this is, in their book, Durkheim and Mauss, 'Primitive Classification' argue that religion provides basic categories such as time, space and cause alongside ideas about a creator bringing the world into being. However this can be questioned as western societies such as Britain are becoming increasingly secular. Comparative Religious Ethics: A Narrative Approach. A strength of the functionalist theory is that it a macro level structural theory which uses an organic analogy- using the body as… The functionalist theory is a social systems approach sports.
For example: in Christianity the cross of Christ is seen as sacred. It is an entheogen that induces visions. Practice is the acts of worship carried out by people. For example, countries such as Canada that have a lesser level of impact from faith on our day-to-day routine are more tolerant, even accepting of, homosexuality Trinity Western University notwithstanding. It is completely based on integrity of the different organs of the society.
Social scientists have identified a number of mechanisms that might explain why religion might make an individual happier, none of which rest on the explanation of divine intervention or supernatural phenomenon. They say it ultimately operates as an agency of socialization. Functionalist theory of religion Assess the view of functionalists that religion serves to reinforce social integration. Photo courtesy of wikimedia commons Weber is known best for his 1904 book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. However this can be questioned as western societies such as Britain are becoming increasingly secular.
For instance, when the Roman Catholic Church emerged, it borrowed many of its organizational principles from the ancient Roman military, turning senators into cardinals, for example. As a cult, a sect, or a denomination? Latin America refers to countries in the subregion of the Americas where Romance languages, primarily Spanish and Portuguese, are spoken. Indeed, many Nobel Peace Prize winners and other great humanitarians over the centuries would have classified themselves as atheists or agnostics. The American God is not an actual God but it is representative of all the sacred values and norms that underpins the American way of life — it is socially constructed. Each institution performs certain functions- each contributes to maintaining the social system by meeting a need. Functionalists believe that religion is a conservative force, and an institution which adds to the requirements of society.
For example, The Church of England in Canada, the Presbyterian Church, the United Church, and Seventh-day Adventist are all Christian denominations. For example, Christianity is states that after death the soul lives on and this can help some people deal with the death of a close one. Feminist theorists focus on gender inequality and promote leadership roles for women in religion. Marxism and functionalism… 1305 Words 6 Pages Question 1: Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of functionalist explanations as applied to the study of contemporary society. The first is descriptive, and the second perspective is evaluative. Functionalism is a macro theory, which is based on society as a whole, rather than just that of the individual.
Our culture is created and reinforced through the participation that comes with the concept of sports. Beliefs are held by a follower. These elements are called cultural universals. The functionalists, Parsons and Bellah later added their own ideas. For instance, the social cohesion among the members of a terrorist group is high, but in a broader sense, religion is obviously resulting in conflict without questioning its actions against other members of society. It provide social unity to help maintain social solidarity through shared rituals and believes. For example, recent statistics show that about 75 percent of Canadian marriages still involve a religious ceremony.
Durkheim links this to his study of tribes where the divisions of tribes into clans give humans their first notion of classification. Particular indicators may apply more to one individual, group, or religion than others at any particular time. It sacralises the American way of life and binds together Americans from many different ethnic and religious backgrounds. Focusing on Calvinism, he showed that Protestant values influenced the rise of capitalism and helped create the modern world order. Another aspect of Durkheim's theory is of the cognitive functions religion can play.
One of these cultural universals is religion. Marx argues that religion not only has a drug-like effect on the masses but also functions for the dominant class in sustaining the status quo. According to Weber the concern of the sociologist should not be the essence of religion, he thought it was rather the task to understand religion as part of meaningful human behaviour. As societies come in contact with other societies, there is a tendency for religious systems to emphasize universalism to a greater and greater extent. To maintain social integration and the collective conscience, regular shared religious rituals bind individuals together and participating in these remind them that they are a part of a single moral community to which they owe their loyalty.
They suggest that each institution performs certain functions to maintain the social system by meeting a need. The functionalists, Parsons and Bellah later added their own ideas. This is a work in progress, please click the links above for more detailed posts! These values become moral codes and beliefs which society agree with and bring their children up with. Secularization interests social observers because it entails a pattern of change in a fundamental social institution. Through collective worship the individual is encouraged to feel part of a wider community e.