For example, the United States occupations of and can be seen as imperialistic in nature. However, other contextual factors could be expected to influence their experiences, including cultural differences among the sampled communities as well as the country of destination and the occupation of migrant parents. Indeed, one theme that emerged in their accounts was the aspiration to have their own phone in order to communicate directly with their migrant parent and their friends, but even those who had the means to maintain connection with a distant parent often had to wait to receive calls, and could not initiate calls themselves. How far are the left behind left behind? Global governance implies that through various structures and processes, actors can coordinate interests and needs although there is no unifying political authority. Some argue that the main driver of transnationalism has been the development of technologies that have made transportation and communication more accessible and affordable, thus dramatically changing the relationship between people and places. Child fosterage in West Africa. Child fostering among nomadic Turkana pastoralists: Demographic and health consequences.
A Theory of Global Capitalism: Production, Class, and State in a Transnational World. From the life stories of Filipino women: personal and family agendas in migration. Methodological nationalism and beyond: Nation-state building, migration and the social sciences. Sometimes this inequality takes the form of neocolonialism, which manifests in the way that First World or Western feminists talk about women from the Third World, creating a binary of Us vs. In: Ehrenreich B, Hochschild A Russell, editors. Children of Global Migration: Transnational Families and Gendered Woes.
These findings emphasize the point that context must be taken into account when comparing the effects of migration on child well-being around the globe. Phone calls from migrant parents, for example, are frequently made to adults or older children first and then the phone is passed to the younger child. Further, mothers were the principal carers for even higher percentages 98. The United States has also had a substantial military presence in. Transnational family life may not necessarily lead to family disintegration and may be part of a strategy for social mobility for all members.
In addition, transnational families tend to maintain local business interests in their country of origin or even transnational entrepreneurship. This production of critique was largely used in the and is a liberal feminist ideology. This methodology has been used by , who studied remittance behavior for housing construction, , who studied family relationships between Mexican migrants and their children back home, and , for the case of Honduran migrants and their family members. Discussion The gaps in current scholarship on transnational families are caused by methodological and conceptual challenges that are particular to the study of families across borders. Unlike the manufacturing sector, which traditionally supplied middle-income jobs and competitive benefits, the majority of service jobs are either extremely well-paid or extremely poorly paid, with relatively few jobs in the middle-income range. Jingsong's mother is still in China, working and taking care of Jingsong's grandparents.
A balanced focus on both sending and receiving countries allows the researcher to gain a thorough understanding of the institutions and cultural norms that guide family relationships in the migrant sending country. A transnational corporation can be defined as a large corporation that has a home base with a headquarters, but operates in various other countries. These differences are not the focus of this paper, in which we seek to foreground intimate relationships within transnational households, but they need to be kept in mind insofar as they are implicated in family practices. Journal of Marriage and Family. In the next section, we highlight three conceptual and methodological challenges and discuss how the articles in this special section advance our understanding of transnational families and the well-being of children.
By interrogating these different dimensions of care using evidence both from quantitative surveys and semistructured interviews, we begin to reveal the diversity of arrangements and intimacies that constitute care for left-behind children and to contribute to understanding how these relationships impact on child well-being. Finally, the majority of studies on the well-being of children who are left behind have focused on one particular stream of migration: from Latin America specifically Mexico to the United States. Dangerous Liaisons: Gender, Nation, and Postcolonial Perspectives. In Sri Lanka, observed that there was actually more male participation in household and child-rearing tasks than reported, and older concepts of gender roles may be slowly changing. Although all of the articles contribute to filling several of the gaps we identified, none tackles them all, and some challenges have only begun to be addressed. Set against gendered expectations, the particular circumstances in which migrant mothers find themselves often circumscribe the opportunities for contact across distance. Family divided: The class formation of Honduran transnational families.
Journal of Marriage and Family. It rejects the idea that people from different regions have the same and experiences with , it further recognizes that global has created similar relations of exploitation and inequality, this core concept creates dialogue which feminists around the world can find solidarity and seek collaboration. Her gendered understanding of caring norms possibly encouraged this relationship. Most seniors were educated, of middle-income category or higher, socially active, enjoyed good health, and were not keen to live in multigeneration households. Berkeley: University of California; 1989. This suggests that the efforts of migrant mothers to maintain connection and contact from a distance do make a difference to child well-being. Parenthood and social reproduction: Fostering and occupational roles in West-Africa.
Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Caregivers may be kin relations, such as the child's maternal grandmother or the child's paternal aunt. The ethnosurvey in theory and practice. What Kyle operates, is a transnational corporation. In: Brownlee P, Mitchell C, editors.
They can create a loss of jobs in their home country. Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore; 2005. As a result, scholars may have to be more creative about their research practices or acknowledge that we do not have the existing methodological tools or ability to research certain dimensions of relational ontologies. Migrant parents and the psychological well-being of left-behind children in Southeast Asia. The articles in this special section were written by authors who conduct cutting-edge research on the topic of transnational families and children within the disciplines of family sociology, anthropology, demography and geography ; ; ; ;. In comparison, the landline telephone was much less important and was the main means of communication used by just over 11% of left-behind children.