Already in 1899, Alfred Dreyfus was able to return to France for a retrial, but although found guilty again, he was pardoned. The trial opened on 19 December 1894 at one o'clock and a closed court was immediately pronounced. August 13, 1898 While browsing through the still-classified Dreyfus file in the Intelligence office, Captain Cuignet although an ardent anti-Dreyfusard realizes that some of the documents have been forged, especially the one naming Dreyfus as a German agent. For many Dreyfusards, this ruling was the prelude to the acquittal of the captain; they forgot to consider that it was again the army who would judge. The army had recovered from the defeat but many of its officers were aristocrats and monarchists.
On 20 January 1898, after an anti-Zola speech by rightist politician at the , the chamber voted 312—22 to prosecute Zola. France was really divided into two, but no more generalization is possible: the Jewish community was little involved, intellectuals were not all Dreyfusards, the Protestants were divided, and Marxists refused to support Dreyfus. Picquart then demonstrated all the workings of the error, then the conspiracy. The book was banned in certain circles, attracting the attention of authorities and causing Zola to lose his job. On 1 November 1894 Alfred's brother, Mathieu Dreyfus, became aware of the arrest after being called urgently to Paris. To find the culprit, using simple though crude reasoning, the circle of the search was arbitrarily restricted to suspects posted to, or former employees of, the General Staff — necessarily a trainee artillery officer.
The outcome of the trial remained uncertain. Winock, The Century of intellectuals, p. He leaves Devil's island on June 9. In 1894, information about recently developed artillery parts in the French Army had been revealed to the Germans, and it could have been passed only by a highly placed spy. During searches of the Statistics Section he discovered numerous documents, most of which were obviously fabricated.
I have won mine, too. Nevertheless Du Paty de Clam still arrested the captain, accused him of conspiring with the enemy, and told him that he would be brought before a court-martial. Zola left France for England in July 1898, a man in exile, and returned to his home country in June 1899, with Dreyfus having been pardoned. Here he went against the strategy of Scheurer-Kestner and Lazare, who advocated patience and reflection. Dreyfus was found guilty of in a secret military court-martial, during which he was denied the right to examine the evidence against him. They found it convenient to separate the Dreyfus and Esterhazy affairs. Candidates for the legislative elections took advantage of antisemitism as a watchword in parliamentary elections.
As expected, the emptiness of their case appeared clearly during the hearings. Why is Esterhazy, a character of depravity and more than doubtful morals, protected while the accused is not? Can I hide their lies? The lawyer was missing from discussions for over a week at the decisive moment of the examination of witnesses. These notes were, for the Dreyfusards, an essential tool for later debates. Other authors have also contributed, such as , , and. Unlike Britain, where radicalism was largely Christian in inspiration, in France it was militantly atheist — and the free-thinking heirs of the revolutionaries of 1789 made common cause, against what they perceived as bigoted and reactionary Catholics, with Protestants, Freemasons and Jews.
Scheurer-Kestner can finally confirms that Esterhazy is the actual traitor. August 5, 1898 The Court of Appeals rejects the appeal of July 19. The graduates of the competed effectively with officers from the main career path of , which caused strife, bitterness, and jealousy among junior officers expecting promotions. September-October 1898 Fashoda crisis between England and France. Émile Zola in 1898 The Dreyfusard movement, led by Bernard Lazare, , and gained momentum. The German Embassy sent a polite refusal to the government.
June 27, 1894 Jean Casimir-Périer becomes the new President of the Republic. The scandal began in December 1894 with the conviction of Captain , a young French artillery officer of. Freycinet is Minister of War. He had the power to stop the process but did not, perhaps because of an exaggerated confidence in military justice. Their thesis was that historians had neglected the correspondence of Schwartzkoppen and Panizzardi, and that homosexuality played a central role in the slandering of Dreyfus. In December the same newspaper launched a subscription, in favour of his widow, to erect a monument to Henry.
Moreover, Zola single-handedly accused the French army and government of being guilty of a number of crimes — namely, illegality in the various trials, coverups, a campaign to mislead public opinion, and corruption. The letter was supposed to accuse Dreyfus definitively since, according to his accusers, it was signed with the initial of his name. It included the names of , , director of the Pasteur Institute , , , , , , , , , , the painter , the writer , the sociologist , and the historian. It will be ultimately installed on the Boulevard Raspail. Assimilation does not solve the problem because the Gentile world will not allow it as the Dreyfus affair has so clearly demonstrated. Drawing by Caran d'Ache in Le Figaro on 14 February 1898. Major d'Ormescheville starts the judicial investigation of the case.