Criticism of modigliani and miller theory
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The modern theory of capital structure started with Modigliani Miller 1958 on the plight of capital structure irrelevance. As we can see, the required rate of return on equity increases as the proportion of debt increases. But in practice Kd increases with leverage beyond a certain acceptable, or reasonable, level of debt. Businesses would be considered to belong to a homogeneous risk category if their expected revenue have equivalent risk characteristics. At its center, the theorem can be an irrelevance proposition, however the Modigliani-Miller Theorem provides conditions under which a firm's financial decisions do not have an impact on its value.

The investment decision is, thus, dependent on the investment policy of the company and not on the dividend policy. Income tax on capital owners In 1978, the Modigliani-Miller theory of capital structure was further developed by taking into account the income tax on capital owners. Given that this firm solicits to supply the resources, it needs to issue stocks. The discount rate applicable to the company is 10%. However, Murray and Goyal 2003 demonstrated that pecking order theory fails where actually it should be liable and this applies for small firms where the main problem is information asymmetry. Not only does a firm have to pay fees and commissions when issuing stocks, bonds, warrants and other instruments, but these transactions also take time. Modigliani â€” Miller theory goes a step further and illustrates the practical situations where dividends are not relevant to investors.

The new hypothesis proposed that investor behavior depends on tax preference. Ergo, the choice of a firm's capital structure strikes the outsiders who are actually the investors the information to managers. The diagram below shows the expense of capital under the Modigliani and Miller proposition 1. The assumption that taxes do not exist is far from reality. For the first two years namely the initial stage or the infant stage, companies face more information asymmetries as their main source of funds are from friends and relatives, trade credit and investors. The dividends are relevant under the certain conditions as well. Why do firms prefer debt to equity? Bankruptcy is the offsetting cost of debt that is needed.

They were the pioneers in suggesting that dividends and capital gains are equivalent when an investor considers returns on investment. This is where the arbitrage argument comes into play. What is an equity capitalization rate? To further relax the Modigliani-Miller's assumption, Miller 1977 introduced personal taxes together with corporate taxes into the model assuming that all enterprises have similar tax rates. The weighted average cost of capital will decrease with the use of debt. Handling of Excess Cash One of the theorem's underlying assumptions is that when a corporation gets hold of extra money, it will not squander the cash.

In addition, it means that the purchase cost cost of buying and advertising securities do not can be found. The total assets of the firm are given. This is mostly where firms obtained bank debt, debts that are convertible but not callable and stand alone warrants which are used to raise capital. However, the policy suffers from various important limitations and thus, is critiqued regarding its assumptions. As a result, the weighted average cost of capital remains constant and the total of the firm also remains constant as average changed. Another proof of the Modigliani-Miller theory of capital structure is arbitrage, i. Event studies also provide a significant amount of evidence indicating that information is conveyed.

At its core, the theorem is an irrelevance proposition: The Modigliani Miller Theorem provides circumstances under which an enterprise's financial decisions are independent on its value. This does mean that an investor is free to buy or sell securities, he can borrow without restriction at the same conditions as the company do and he act rationally. But according to number of writers, dividends are relevant under conditions of uncertainty. In contrast, Faulkender and Wang 2006 provide restrained evidence for the pecking order theory. Capital structure has a major implication to the power of organizations to meet up with the various needs of stakeholders. In the end, the profitability and viability of the firm is unaffected by its financing decisions.

Finally, we found a negative relationship between the profitability measures of firms and degree of aggressiveness of working capital investment and financing policies. Traditional view: The traditional view is a compromise between the net income approach and the net operating approach. As these firms tend to generate cash which exceeds their investment needs. To find the adjustment behavior on capital structure depending on macroeconomic conditions, we use dynamic partial adjustment model to estimate adjustment speeds toward targets. Consequently, a firm can pay dividends and raise funds to undertake the optimum investment policy. From the above M-M fundamental principle we can derive their valuation model as follows: Multiplying both sides of equation by the number of shares outstanding n , we obtain the value of the firm if no new financing exists. Hinged by the argument set by Myers and Maljuf 1984 , Myers 1984 suggested that the pecking order theory propose that firms finance their projects by firstly using internal funds in the form of retained earnings, secondly through the utility of debts risk-less debts are used first and when there is a shortage or there is no more of the risk-less debt, risky debts are used and finally equity is issued.

The former found out that the assumption of the slope of the deficit being one was not a necessary assumption for pecking order theory to be valid. One of them is the position of organizational sales. Their conclusion is that, the shareholders get the same benefit from dividend as from capital gain through retained earnings. However, the cash value decreases as cash holdings become larger, high leverage, better cash to capital markets and larger cash distributions through dividends rather than the repurchase of shares. Arbitrage process is the operational justification for Modigliani and Miller hypothesis.