But it should be noted that, in some cases, on the same sutra-work different authors wrote ' different major commentaries uhasyas and interpreted thesutraB to justify their respective standpoints. To maintain that every experience - the sum total of reality, can be expressed entirely in physical, scientific terms is just so amazingly dumb that it's a great wonder most educated and so-called intelligent people buy into it. Cultural Unity: The cultural unity of India is equally strong amidst its manifold diversities. We find no yawing gap between man, matter and God in Indian philosophical systems. But because of the extra special care you took to protect it, the painting itself is not damaged. Nevertheless, there are a few key ritualscommon in Hindu weddings —Kanyadaan, Panigrahana, and Saptapadi; these are respectively, gifting away of daughter by the father, voluntarily holding hand near the fire to signify impending union, and taking seven steps before fire with each step including a set of mutual vows.
But this conformism, like conformism to the Vedas, did not check the rise of independent thinking, new , or original insights. The next question is : How is true knowledge t distinguished from false knowledge? The earliest systematic work available now is the 1 ' SahTthya-karika of Tsvara Krsna. If two things are related as cause and effect, we know that they are universally related, for there cannot be any effect without its cause. Hence we are to say that this inference is not any of the valid moods of syllogism recog- nized by Formal Logic, nor should we forcibly convert the conclusion into a negative proposition. The justification of this last interpretation can be obtained from some facts of Buddba's life and teachings. States like Punjab, Maharashtra and Union Territories like Delhi and Goa are economically far ahead of states like Bihar, Orissa and Nagaland. They have tried to approach each system with sympathy and justify it, rather than dismiss it with a customary criticism.
He concentrates his pure and unruffled mind on reasoning vitarka and investigation vjciira regarding the truths, aud enjoys in this state, joy a The first stage of ,. Tbis means that there may be smoke without fire. Some of the important ones are - Direct experience: All systems of Indian philosophy claim to be derived from the Veda but the Veda itself is a record of the sages who realized the truth within. The self is perceived only through some such quality of it as cognition, feeling or willing, and so the perceptual judgment is in the form, 'I am knowing,' 'I am happy', and so forth. All Indian thinkers Jay much stress on such practice which chiefly consists of repeated efforts in the right direction abhyasa.
Differences in physical features automatically have brought differences in altitude, climate, temperature, rainfall, flora and fauna. It is a philosophy, although between the self and matter rather than between mind and body as in the Western tradition, and liberation occurs with the realization that the soul and the dispositions of matter steadiness, activity and dullness are different. Prakrti is the material cause of the universe and is composed of three gunas — sattva, rajas and tamas that correspond to light, activity and inertia respectively. He iB never born again after death. Others, known as Vaibhasikas, hold that the external world is directly perceived. An external object ceived, because it is not possible to rannot ba perceived.
Man comes to know that his soul is distinct from the body, that it is really a part of God or Brahman, on whom his existence depends. Man and some higher animals have five Fenses through all of which they know things. J made always to follow the lead of ordinary axperience, by the latter reasoning is made to follow! Hence the question is : What is a sentence and how does it beoome A sentence is a group intelligible? Some other followers, mostly the Mahayanists, interpreted Buddha's view neither as a denial of reality. Now this direct knowledge or perception of the universal manhood is the medium through which 1 perceive all men or the class of men. A word may mean meaning lntroacd to ,'.
This view is based on the facts a that some Vedjc hymns ' ascribed by tradition to Brhaspati, son ofrLoka, are marked by a spirit of revolt and free- thinking, 6 that in the Maha- bharata and elsewhere materialistic views are put ip the mouth of Brhaspati and c that about a dozen sutras and verseB are found quoted or referred to by different authors as the materialistic teachings of Brhaspati. These characteristics are as follows:- 1. These are 1 Savya- of fallacies. During the Indian struggle for independence in the early 20th Century, Mahatma Gandhi popularized the philosophies of ahimsa non-violence and satyagraha non-violent resistance , which were influenced by the teachings of the Hindu Bhagavad Gita, as well as Jesus, Tolstoy, and Ruskin. Hence if there is any fallacy of inference, that must be du«j to he material conditions on which the truth of the constituent premises depends. With the advent of the modern Nyaya, the ancient school lost some of its popularity.
Similarly, Indian philosophy started with simple levels of human understanding, incorporated the direct experiences of sages down the centuries to become a vast and thorough body of knowledge. Intellectual and spiritual experiences were the criteria for ascertaining the soundness and worth of religious principles. In addition, many Indian states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Thus the religious hankerings of those who accepted Buddhism arc also satisfied by the Mahayiina by identifying Buddha with God. The Svetambaras do not accept these views. They are too many to be mentioned i ' Digambara ' literally means nude and ' firetanibara ' white- iobed. The Nydya System The Nyaya system iB the work of the great sage Gotama.
Cooperation Cooperation is highly valued. Besides regional festivals there are some typical festivals like Dussera, Holi, Diwali etc. The other type of script called Kharosthi was in less use relatively. Roles of sacred texts, mythology, and theism The role of the sacred texts in the growth of Indian philosophy is different in each of the different systems. But that there is really no circular reasoning here becomes clear when we distinguish between the order of knowledge and the order of existence. Some old Naiyayikas 2 seem to think that there cannot he a perception or direct cognition of the self.
As a matter of fact a curious observer feels puzzled with the existence of so many diverse trends of Indian culture at first glance. Radhakrishnan: Indian Philosophy 2 volumes , Oxford University Press, 1923 4. Expectancy is the interdependence of the words in a sentence for expressing a complete meaning. Thus, the theoretical aspects of philosophy can be applied to everyday life. This school is called Vaisesika because it considers, uniqueness, as an aspect of reality and studies it as a separate category. But they point out that there are two kinds of charac- ters found in every substance, essential and accidental.